If you’re someone with a penis, you’ve undoubtedly wondered how large yours is in comparison to the average.
You don’t need to wonder any longer, as researchers publishing in BJU International have studied over 15,000 penises to figure out the average penis size.
The study was titled “Am I normal? A systematic review and construction of nomograms for flaccid and erect penis length and circumference in up to 15 521 men” and the objective of the study was to “systematically review and create nomograms of flaccid and erect penile size measurements.”
Noting that many men experience “small penis anxiety” or “small penis syndrome” despite their penis falling within a normal range, the researchers suggest their results will help to alleviate anxiety around the issue.
According to the researchers, the average penis length is just over 13 centimeters, or around 5 inches. Furthermore, there’s no strong correlation between hand size and penis length, so women can stop judging men by the size of their hands.
Previous research studies into average penis size have usually relied on self-reporting, which isn’t very accurate. To avoid this problem, the researchers compiled measurements taken by health practitioners who measured both girth (the circumference at the base and middle) and length (pubic bone to the tip of the glans). They compiled measurements from 20 different studies, eventually including 15,521 different penises in the study from countries around the world.
The results will be music to the ears of many men all over the world.
The average flaccid penis was found to be 9.16 cm (3.61 inches) long, while the average erect penis is 13.12 cm (5.16 inches) in length. As for girth, the average circumference of a flaccid penis turned out to be 9.31 cm (3.66 inches), and 11.66 cm (4.59 inches) for an erect one.
Moreover, it was found that those at extreme ends of the spectrum were more uncommon than expected. For example, only 5 men out of every 100 have an erect penis longer than 16 cm (6.3 inches).
The researchers looked for correlations between other body features such as testicular size, weight, and hand or foot size, but couldn’t find any meaningful correlations. They also couldn’t find any significant correlation between penis size and race, but the researchers noted that most of measurements were taken from Caucasian men.
What’s the key point of the research results?
Men, don’t be so hard on yourself. The penises you’re inevitably seeing in porn are extremely rare and are not an accurate representation of the average penis.
Small penis anxiety is a real thing, and these results will do much to combat it.
If you had to narrow down everything that’s important to you in one tweet, would you be able to do it?
This was the challenge set forth by one scientist on Twitter this week, and hundreds of scientists have leapt at the chance to explain what is most interesting about their work and why it matters.
It’s provided a fascinating glimpse into what scientists think the world should know about their work during a time when it seems the role of science in the United States is becoming increasingly politicized.
It all began with this tweet from Dalton Ludwick, a doctoral researcher in entomology.
If you could have the entire world know just one thing about your field of study, then what would it be? #MyOneScienceTweet
Navajo County in Arizona have issued a disturbing public health warning after fleas tested positive for the plague. The county made the warning in order to let residents know about the symptoms of bubonic plague, including buboes, fever and muscle pain.
Fleas collected in Coconino County, Arizona, also tested positive for Yersinia pestis, which causes the plague in humans. Navajo County asked people to take extra measures of precaution of they are in an area where the plague has been identified.
“Navajo County Health Department is urging the public to take precautions to reduce their risk of exposure to this serious disease,” they wrote on Facebook. “The disease can be transmitted to humans and other animals by the bite of an infected flea or by direct contact with an infected animal.”
They also issued advice for people who suspect they have already contracted it. Another indication of the plague could be incidents of sudden die-offs of rodents, rabbits or prairie dogs.
If you have any of the following symptoms of the plague, you should contact your physician immediately:
swollen lymph glands (called “buboes”) in the groin, armpits, or limbs.
Authorities from Navajo County have warned that the disease can spread throughout the bloodstream and infect the lungs if left untreated. However, it can be cured with antibiotics of treated early enough
The plague is rare in the United States, so if you contract it you should be okay if you treat it quickly. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 12 people died from the disease between 2000 and 2015 (out of 96 cases of the disease).
Navajo County officials suggested extra precautions if you live in or visit the area, such as not handling dead animals and keeping your pets from roaming loose.
They also suggested using insect repellent if you visit areas that have been known to have the plague. Also avoid exposure to rodents wherever possible.
It wasn’t long ago that white nationalism was a fringe political movement, Now, it’s gained new relevance.
With Twitter feeds on fire, tempers flaring and tiki torches being lit, we’re living in a time of “identity politics”. We’re also living in a time when it’s never been easier to get hold of a genetic ancestry test (GAT).
Aaron Panofsky and Joan Donovan are two sociologists from the University of California, Los Angeles. They have investigated the rise of white nationalists and their increasing use of these GATs with the aim of affirming their assumed ancestry and identity.
Unfortunately for them, white nationalists are often disappointed with their results.
Donovan and Panofsky shared their findings at the annual American Sociological Association in Montréal last week, which was fortunate timing given the events in Charlottesville the weekend before. Their paper was titled “When Genetics Challenges a Racist’s Identity: Genetic Ancestry Testing Among White Nationalists.”
For years they have been gathering data from Stormfront, a white nationalist and neo-Nazi online forum set up by a former KKK member. On this forum they observed over 600 people react to their GAT results.
Some people were pleasantly surprised with their results. For example, one posted:
“I was surprised there wasn’t more German. Evidently, the Y DNA said ‘Nordic’ and traces back to the Cimbri tribe, which settled in Denmark.”
Others weren’t so positive:
“See, THIS is why I don’t recommend these tests to people. Did they bother to tell you that there were Whites in what is now Senegal all that time ago? No? So they led you to believe that you’re mixed even though in all probability, you are simply related to some White fool who left some of his DNA with the locals in what is now Senegal.”
At times forum users hit out at each other when finding out their members were of “non-white ancestry”. After finding out that someone was 61 percent European, one poster responded:
“I’ve prepared you a drink. It’s 61 percent pure water. The rest is potassium cyanide… Cyanide isn’t water, and YOU are not White.”
Another common response was rejecting the legitimacy of the tests, suggesting they are a misleading Jewish multi-cultural conspiracy.
The researchers note that this response by white nationalists should not be blankly dismissed as sheer ignorance, even though their theories more often prove groundless, that they reflect more than a simple misunderstanding of the science, but a purposeful misuse of it.
“Most population geneticists would be appalled at the use of their variation-based research to build typological theories of human classification. But these scientists have produced tools open to such interpretations,” Panofsky says at the end of article.
“GAT rests on an infrastructure presumed to be good and evil in conventional ways: that is, good for citizens to learn about themselves, bad because of privacy threats and undisclosed, open-ended data mining. But what GAT also does is set up a whole new infrastructure for racists to endow their groundless theories with a high-tech scientific imprimatur and to convince each other of the myths that mobilize them as a social group in the first place.”
Earlier this year, physicists celebrated the discovery of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). These are ripples in spacetime curvature, and they were discovered at the site of a black hole merger, confirming part of Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity.
However, it may be the case that this discovery suggests that the same theory breaks down at the edge of black holes.
Physicists who have studied in more depth LIGO’s data on the black hole merger claim that it reveals “echos” of gravitational waves which contradict what Einstein’s general theory of relativity say should appear.
It used to be that physicists thought Einstein’s theory broke down in extreme conditions like what we find at a black hole’s core. Now, they believe the recently discovered echos indicate that relativity fails around a black hole’s edges.
According to the standard model based on Einstein’s theory, there shouldn’t be anything at the edge of a black hole. This is in contrast with other theories such as quantum physics, which suggests the edge should have a ring of high-energy particles around it.
Cosmologist Niayesh Afshordi of the University of Waterloo in Candada created models of these black hole mergers, assuming they do have something at their edges. The model suggests that black holes do have some kind of structure and not a whole lot of nothingness as suggested by Einstein’s theory of relativity.
“The LIGO detections, and the prospect of many more, offer an exciting opportunity to investigate a new physical regime,” said black-hole researcher Steve Giddings from the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB).
It’s no surprise that we’re finding evidence that confirms one theory and then breaks it the next.
Nonetheless, employees around the world are walking around with implanted microchips, offered to them by their employers.
The latest is Three Square Market (32M) based in River Falls, Wisconsin. 32M claims to be the first company in the U.S. to implant employees with an RFID chip. They’ve done this so they can shop at the company’s micro market during break without having to use cash or credit cards. The implants will also allow employees to open doors, login to computers and use the copy machine without the need for passwords.
The company provides self-service “micro markets” – a sophisticated version of a vending machine where employees can buy food and beverages during their break – to businesses around the world.
RFID technology or Radio-Frequency Identification uses electromagnetic fields to identify electronically stored information – it’s also used to track packages in transit. The chip implant uses near-field communications (NFC), the same technology that allows you to pay with your phone by holding it up to a device.
A chip, about the size of a grain of rice, is implanted between the thumb and forefinger underneath the skin at the company’s cost.
Todd Westby, 32M CEO, noted in a press release that the technology will eventually become standardized allowing it to be used in place of a passport, for public transit and shopping.
“We foresee the use of RFID technology to drive everything from making purchases in our office break room market, opening doors, use of copy machines, logging into our office computers, unlocking phones, sharing business cards, storing medical/health information, and used as payment at other RFID terminals,” Westby noted.
32M is partnering with BioHax International and Jowan Osterland, CEO, based out of Sweden. The company decided to chip their employees when they saw the concept in operation in Sweden.
32M is not the only company to tag employees.
In April this year LA Times reported that the Swedish startup hub Epicenter offered to implant workers and start-up members with microchips that function as swipe cards to open doors, operate printer or buy snacks. Mail Online reported in February that the Belgium digital marketing and tech firm NewFusion, was going to implant identity chips in employees. The chips contain personal information and provide access to the company’s IT systems and headquarters, replacing existing ID cards.
So, being tagged is on the cards so to speak. In the case or 32M the company gives the insurance that employees won’t be tracked, but what about the future, and this practice becomes so common that we don’t even question it anymore? What say will people have on what those innocuous chips are imbedded with?
For now the procedure is quick and free and convenient if it’s too much trouble to remember to take a key, a credit card or a smartphone with you.